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The aim of Vivek Anand’s research activities is to decipher the dynamics of economic paradiplomacy, in particular to identify best practices. As part of these research activities, a two-day workshop was held with 24 participants, in which both researchers and paradiplomacy practitioners were able to exchange ideas.

First, the fundamental question of what exactly paradiplomacy is was explored. Vivek Anand prefers this term to the much more established term “sub-national diplomacy”, as it does not express a relationship of subordination, but a relationship of equivalence with classical nation-state diplomacy. In four systematically consecutive panels, the role of paradiplomatic actors was first examined in more detail, followed by an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of public-private partnerships. The panels on the second day focused on case studies from various German municipalities such as Essen, Karlsruhe and Düsseldorf, before the role of local contexts was discussed in detail. The diversity of the participants was particularly evident in the fact that they came from three different federal states and eight different countries (India, South Korea, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Italy, Poland and Germany).


What are the motivations and strategies for collaborative endeavours between sub-national actors?

How can sub-national actors strengthen international public-private partnerships and attract investment?

What are the implications of paradiplomacy in trade, innovation, skill development, and sustainability?

How do sub-national actors institutionalize and sustain paradiplomatic initiatives?


Vivek Anand
Deputy Director, Govt. of India | Fellows, Academy of International Affairs NRW


Lisa Hartmann
Events and Public Relations Officer

Rheinallee 24, 53173 Bonn



Please feel free to join us online for selected sessions:

18.01.24 |14.00h |Session 2. Sub-National Actors in International Affairs

19.01.24 | 09.15h |Session 4. Case Studies in Paradiplomacy

19.01.24 |11.00h | Session 5. Local Contexts in an Evolving Global Economic Order

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